副词属于八大词类之一,用来修饰动词。它们可以描述某事完成的方式、时间、地点以及频率。下面关于五种副词的介绍。

五种类型的副词

1.Adverbs of Manner
方式副词

方式副词能够表达出某人完成某事的方式,它最常与行为动词搭配使用。方式副词包括:slowly(慢慢地)、fast(迅速地)、carefully(小心地)、carelessly(粗心地)、effortlessly(不费力地)、urgently(急切地)。

方式副词可以放在句末,或者直接放在动词后。

Jack drives very carefully.
杰克开车非常小心。

He won the tennis match effortlessly.
他毫不费力地就赢了网球比赛。

She slowly opened the present. 
她慢慢打开了礼物。

2.Adverbs of Time and Frequency
时间与频率副词

时间副词能够表达出某事发生的时间。它可以表达出一个具体的时间,例如两天、昨天、三个星期前等。虽然时间副词有时引导一个句子,但它常常放在句末。

We'll let you know our decision next week.
下周我们会通知你我们的决定。

I flew to Dallas three weeks ago.
三个星期前我飞去了达拉斯。

Yesterday, I received a letter from my friend in Belfast.
昨天,我收到一位贝尔法斯特的朋友的信。

除了表达某事发生的频率之外,频率副词与一般副词相似。频率副词放在主动词前面,放在be动词后面。下面是一份常见的频率副词列表,使用频率由高到低排列。

Always
总是

almost always
几乎总是

usually
经常

often
经常

sometimes
有时

occasionally
偶尔

seldom
很少地

rarely
很少地

almost never
几乎从不

never
从不

He seldom takes a vacation.
他的假期很少。

Jennifer occasionally goes to the movies.
詹妮弗偶尔去看看电影。

Tom is never late for work.
汤姆上班从不迟到。

3.Adverbs of Degree
程度副词

程度副词通常表示某事完成的程度。它们通常位于句末。

They like playing golf a lot.
他们很喜欢打高尔夫。

She decided that she doesn't enjoy watching TV at all.
她确定自己一点都不喜欢看电视。

She nearly flew to Boston, but decided not to go in the end.
她差点就飞去波士顿了,但最后还是觉得不去了。

4.Adverbs of Place
地点副词

地点副词告诉我们某事发生的地点。它们包括nowhere(任何地方都不) 、anywhere(任何地方)、outside(外面)、everywhere(到处)。

Tom will go anywhere with his dog.
汤姆去哪都带着他的狗。

You'll find that there is nowhere like home.
你会发现,再没有像家一样的地方了。

She found the box outside.
她在外面发现了这个箱子。

Adverb Formation
副词构造

1. 副词通常是由形容词后面加上-ly构成。

例如:quiet – quietly(安静地)、careful – carefully(小心地) 、careless – carelessly(粗心地)。

2.以-le结尾的形容词变为以-ly结尾。

例如:possible – possibly(可能地)、probable – probably(很可能地)、incredible – incredibly(难以置信地)。

3.以-y结尾的形容词改为以-ily结尾。

例如:lucky – luckily(幸运地)、happy – happily(快乐地)、angry – angrily(愤怒地)。

4.以-ic结尾的形容词改为以-ically结尾。

例如:basic – basically(基本地)、ironic – ironically(讽刺地)scientific - scientifically (科学地)。

一些形容词的变化形式是不规则的。常见的不规则副词有:good – well(好地)、hard – hard(辛苦地)、fast –fast(迅速地)

Adverb Sentence Placement
副词在句中的位置

1.Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
方式副词:方式副词位于动词后面,或整个表达后面(句末)。

Their teacher speaks quickly.
他们老师的语速很快。

2.Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
时间副词:时间副词位于动词后或整个表达后面(句末)。

She visited her friends last year.
她去年去拜访了朋友。

3.Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the auxiliary verb).
频率副词:频率副词位于主要动词(而非助动词)前面。

He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early?
他经常晚睡。你有时候会早起吗?

4.Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
程度副词:程度副词位于动词后面或整个表达后面(句末)。

She'll attend the meeting as well.
她也出席了这次会议。

5.Adverbs of place: Adverbs of place are generally placed at the end of a sentence.
地点副词:地点副词一般位于句末。

She walked out of the room to nowhere.
她走出了房间。

Important Exceptions to Adverb Placement
副词位置的特殊情况

Some adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence to provide more emphasis.
一些副词位于句首,来进行强调。

For example: Now you tell me you can't come!
例如:现在你居然告诉我你不能来!

Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb 'to be' when used as the main verb of the sentence.
当be动词作为一个句子的主要动词时,频率副词位于be动词之后。

Jack is often late for work.
杰克上班经常迟到。

Some adverbs of frequency (sometimes, usually, normally) are also placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis.
一些频率副词(有时、经常、通常)也会位于句首,以进行强调。

Sometimes I visit my friends in London.
我有时候会去拜访在伦敦的朋友。

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