阅读理解能力是一种习得的技能。要求读者能够流畅阅读、保持专注并批判性地思考书籍或文本的内容。然而,不幸的是,许多学生在理解文本方面十分吃力。有些人,不能从细节处发现文章主旨,而有些人则根本不明白这本书究竟在讲什么。因此,帮助学生提高阅读理解能力,事关学生教育的成败。可以使用以下十个有效的提示和策略,来帮助学生提升阅读理解能力。

1. Read Aloud
1.大声朗读

While some might think of a teaching reading aloud as something that only happens in elementary classrooms, there is evidence that reading aloud also benefits middle and high school students as well.
也许,有些人认为,大声朗读的学习方法仅适用于小学阶段。但是,相关研究表明,大声朗读的学习方法同样适用于初中生和高中生。

2. Stop and Ask Questions to Yourself as You Read
2.暂停阅读并提出问题

A good strategy to teach struggling readers is that instead of just rushing through a passage or chapter, they should stop and ask themselves questions. Doing this can help them focus on the main ideas and increase the student's engagement with the material.
对那些苦于阅读的读者来说,与其草草读完一段文章或一回小说,不如暂时停下来反思自己有什么问题。这么做有助于读者关注主旨,增强学生对阅读材料的参与性。

3. Talk with Someone Else About What Is Being Read
3.和他人讨论阅读的内容

Having students stop periodically and discuss what has just been read can reveal any issues with understanding and can reinforce what is being taught.
定期让学生停下来与他人讨论所读内容,能够暴露所有难以理解之处并巩固所学内容。

4. Look at the Headings and Other Information before You Begin
4.读前查看标题及其他信息

An excellent strategy that soon becomes second nature is to have struggling students read through all the headings and subheadings in any chapter that they have been assigned. This information can help them gain an overview of what they will be learning as they read the chapter.
对一些阅读能力欠佳的学生来说,将阅读前浏览章节标题和副标题的技巧培养成习惯,这件事并不难。该信息有助于学生在阅读过程中对将要学习的内容有一个总体的认知。

5. Keep Paper Handy for Notes and Questions
5.备好本子记录要点和疑问

Students should read a chapter with paper and pen in hand. They can then take notes, write down questions they think of, and create a vocabulary list of all the highlighted words in the chapter along with any unfamiliar terms that they need to define.
阅读时,学生应备好纸笔,以便记下要点和思考的问题。还可以列出本章节的重点单词以及任何需要定义的不熟悉的术语。

6. Learn to Cluster Words
6.学习聚类词汇

Clustering is a skill that increases reading comprehension by having students learn to read groups of words that form phrases or fit together semantically into one cluster.
聚类,是一种通过让学生学习阅读构成短语的单词组或在语义上合并到一个聚类的方式来增强个人阅读理解能力的技能。

7. Use Graphic Organizers as You Read
7.阅读时运用图表

Some students find that graphic organizers like webs and concept maps can greatly enhance reading comprehension. These allow students to identify areas of focus and main ideas in a reading.
一些学生认为,使用诸如网络和概念地图的图表能够大大提升自己的阅读理解能力。这些图表便于学生在阅读过程中找到需要关注的重点和主要思想。

8. Practice PQ4R
8.练习PQ4R阅读法

This consists of six steps: Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review. Preview has students scan the material to get an overview. Question means that students should ask themselves questions as they read. The four R's have students read the material, reflect on what has just been read, recite the major points to yourself, and then finally go back over the material and see if you can answer the questions you previously asked.
该方法包含六个步骤:预览、提问、阅读、思考、背诵、回顾。预览要求学生浏览材料,对相关材料产生整体的认知。提问是指学生在阅读时应提出问题。四个R分别要求学生阅读材料、思考刚刚读过的内容、记忆要点、最终回归材料,检验自己能否回答之前所提的问题。

9. Stop and Summarize
9.暂停阅读并总结

As students read, have them periodically stop their reading and summarize what they have just read. This will aid in their understanding of the material being covered.
定期要求学生暂停阅读,总结已读内容。这么做有利于深化学生对已读内容的理解。

10. Write Questions about the Material
10.写出与材料相关的检测题

After students have read a passage, have them go back and write questions that could be included in a quiz or test on the material. This will require them to look at the information in a different manner.
要求学生读毕后回归材料,并写出与材料相关的检测题。这意味着学生将以不同的方式阅读信息。

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